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Trauma | Types Part Two

Trauma Types (Continued)

Helmets and other Personal Protective Equipment are 29% effective in preventing fatal injuries

Other Motorized Vehicle Collisions:

  • Motorcycles: bilateral femur fractures common
  • ATVs/Snowmobiles: head, back, neck and extremities
  • Boats/Water bikes/Jet skis: additional hazard of drowning
  • Farm Machinery

Pedestrian vs. Auto

  • Bumper vs. Body
  • Body strikes hood (adults turn away, kids freeze)
  • Body strikes ground

More Blunt Trauma:

  • Vertical Falls: half occur in the home, 4 out of 5 are 65 or older. Damage depends on
    • Distance fallen: 3x height is significant (2x for kids)
    • What surface they fell on, did anything break the fall?
    • What body part hit first? Adults – feet, Kids’ heavy heads tend to hit first
  • Sports Injuries: 15% of all spinal cord injuries in the US are sports=related
    • Contact sports: football, basketball, hockey
    • High velocity sports like skiing, biking, rollerblades Racquet sports
  • Water sports

Blast Injuries: pressure field from explosion, release in energy confined in a casing

  • Primary: sudden changes in environmental pressure. Gas-containing organs most vulnerable, ears, lungs, CNS and GI Tract. Also thermal burns
  • Secondary: bystanders struck by flying debris
  • Tertiary: victims propelled by force strike an object
  • Misc: radiation exposure, inhalation, eyes, lungs, soft tissue

Penetrating Trauma: the more blunt the object, the more force must be applied to penetrate
Cavitation: opening produced by force that pushes the body tissues laterally away from the tract of a projectile.

  • Low energy: knife, ax, needle
  • Medium energy: handguns, some rifles
  • High energy: hunting rifles, assault weapons

GSW: get type, caliber and range. Exit wound usually larger because of cavitational pressure
Crime Scene: leave evidence i.e. bullet holes in clothing in tact
Body Armor: level of protection recommended by the Dept of Justice. There are seven levels. Type III or higher is recommended.

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