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Stages Of Shock

Shock: body’s response to poor perfusion

Barorecepters: sensory nerve endings that sense changes in BP from vaso dilation/constriction

  • Lower BP in response to increased arterial pressure
    • Inhibit medulla
    • Excite vagal center
    • Decrease force of cardiac contraction
  • Increase BP in response to decreased arterial pressure
    • Inhibit vagal center
    • Activate sympathetic nervous system> norepinephrine and epinephrine

Chemoreceptors: walls of atria of heart, vena cava, aortic arch and carotid sinus. Increase in CO2/decreases in O2 initiate a sympathetic response to increase rate and depth of respiration.

Ischemia: vasoconstriction gives little blood to capillaries>stagnation>tissue ischemia and aerobic metabolism >> too much lactic acid >> higher pH >> metabolic acidosis. Capillaries start leaking and wastes start washing out of the cells.

Patients at the most risk of shock: Trauma patients, elderly, pregnant women.

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