Communications | Part Two

Types of Communication

Simplex: one direction at a time, pro: finish your message without interruption

Duplex: 2 separate frequencies are paired. Simultaneous transmission and reception

Multiplex: transmits simultaneously 2 or more different types of information in either or both directions over the same frequency.

Digital Communications: data or sounds that are converted into digital code for transmission. 12.5 kHz channels, higher security, integrated voice and data on one channel for enhanced signal capabilities.

Trunking: pooling frequencies and directions of transmissions to the next open frequency in a communications system. Sharing means faster access, efficiency, privacy

Radio frequency: the number of times per minute a radio wave oscillates:

  • VHF (very high frequency) low band 32-50 mHz,
    • pros: greatest distance travel, use rural/forest, follows the curve of the earth.
    • cons: simplex transmission, limited to voice, FCC allows no telemetry
  • VHF high band 150-174 mHz;
    • pros: metropolitan areas
    • cons: simplex, travels straight lines, no curve of earth
  • UHF 450-470 mHz, channels 1-10 are designated by FCC as EMS may are paired for duplex operation
    • pros: least susceptible to electronic interference, excellent penetration
    • cons: straight lines
  • 800 MHZ Frequency
    • pros: metropolitan areas, send voiceless info to computers in vehicles
    • cons:

Additional Equipment:

Pagers: alphanumeric alerts
Repeater systems: increase range of portable and mobile radios, mounted on vehicles or on towers
Recording equipment: active record kept of radio and phone communications can be played back for media broadcast, education, disciplinary hearings and litigation. Professionalism is paramount

FCC: controls and regulates all radio communications
Licensing and allocation of radio frequencies
Establishing technical standards for equipment
Establish and enforce rules and regulations for radio equipment operation
Monitors frequencies for appropriate usage
Spot check base stations and dispatch centers for licenses and records

Written Communications:

  • Document vehicle maintenance
  • Medical equipment
  • Drug and fluid expirations
  • Incident reports
  • Call reports
  • Most important is the Run Report
    • Patient’s condition and treatment
    • Written legal record of each case
    • Clinical info to the ER staff
    • All confidential


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