Cellular Transport & Metabolism

Cellular Transport:

Semipermeable: a cell that allows some substances to enter or leave while restricting others

Permeability: the rate at which substances pass through a membrane. This is determined by size and charge of molecules

Other regulating factors: ion pumps, active transport and diffusion

Water: the only substance that passes freely back and forth, OSMOSIS

Active Transport: is the movement of water. Water moves to equalize a solute’s concentration either inside or outside the cell

Requires energy, or ATP. Moves solutes against their concentration gradients

Passive Transport: Does not require energy, Diffusion and facilitated diffusion

Diffusion= continual movement of particles (SOLUTES) from higher to lower concentration until they are scattered evenly, examples are Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Electrolytes (Potassium, Sodium)

Facilitated Diffusion= A specialized transport protein binds to the molecule and moves it through the cell membrane, most important are GLUCOSE and Amino Acids. Still passive because it is going from higher to lower concentration

Tonicity:         The number of particles of solute per unit volume

Isotonic:          Osmotic pressure equal to body fluid

Hypotonic:       Osmotic pressure less than normal body fluids

Hypertonic:     Osmotic pressure greater than normal body fluids


Cellular Metabolism and Respiration

Metabolism: combination of all chemical processes that take place in the body resulting in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste and other bodily functions.

2 steps (with regards to distribution of nutrients in the blood ie glucose, amino acids and fats):

  • Anabolism = constructive or building phase, smaller to bigger
  • Catabolism = destructive or breakdown phase, larger to smaller

Krebs Cycle: Mitochondria uses amino acids and fats to produce energy. Amino acids can also be converted to glucose. Can be stored in the lever as glycogen, used as necessary to raise blood sugar.

Cellular Respiration: the mitochondria metabolizes glucose into ATP, CO2 and H2O. One glucose becomes 36-38 ATP in an aerobic environment (with O2)

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