Allergic Reactions | General

Allergic Reactions

Allergic Reaction: result from exposure to any substance to which an individual is sensitive

Anaphylaxis: Specific type of allergic reaction caused by the interaction of anallergen (called an antigen) and one antibody (IgE)

Allergen: Generic term for any substance to which a person is sensitive
Antigen: an Allergen
Antibody: Antibodies respond to antigens. There are five types of antibodies, partof the immune system that recognizes antigens and stimulates animmune system response

Diphenhydramine: Benedryl. An antihistamine that blocks the effects of histamine
Epinephrine: Adrenaline. Stimulates alpha and beta blockers
Histamine: Cellular substance released into the body during anaphylactic shock,causes bronchospasm, vasodilation and leakage of fluid from vessels
IgE: Ig=immunoglobins. IgE is the only antibody involved in anaphylaxis

Pathology of Anaphylaxis:

  • Antibodies attack antigens. The severity of the symptoms range from progressive hives to cardiac arrest.
  • Histamine release occurs first
    • Bronchospasm
    • Vasodilation
    • Leaking of fluid
  • Histamine stimulates the release of other mediators
    • Unpredictable spiral of events
  • Biphasic (early and late) anaphylactic response is 1 out of 5 people
    • Reoccurrence 4-5 hours later> may lead to shock


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